Vaccines that stimulate CD8+ T cells could clear early virus infection or control ongoing infection and prevent disease. This could be valuable to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) where it has not yet been possible to generate broadly reacting neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine. However, HIV-1 vaccines aimed at stimulating CD8+ T cells have had no success. In contrast, a cytomegalovirus vectored simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine enabled clearance of early SIV infection. This may open the door to the design of an effective HIV vaccine.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol