HIV susceptibility conferred to human fibroblasts by cytomegalovirus-induced Fc receptor.
McKeating JA., Griffiths PD., Weiss RA.
The main receptor for the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) on T and B lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages is the CD4 antigen 1-3. Infection of these cells is blocked by monoclonal antibodies to CD4(1,2) and by recombinant soluble CD4(4-9). Expression of transfected CD4 on the surface of HeLa and other human cells renders them susceptible to HIV infection 10. HIV-antibody complexes can also infect monocytes and macrophages by means of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins (FcR)11-13), or complement receptors 14,15. The expression of IgG FcRs can be induced in cells infected with human herpes viruses such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)16,17 and human cytomegalovirus (CMV)18-21. Here we demonstrate that FcRs induced by CMV allow immune complexes of HIV to infect fibroblasts otherwise not permissive to HIV infection. Infection was inhibited by prior incubation with human IgG, but not by anti-CD4 antibody or by recombinant soluble CD4. Once HIV had entered CMV-infected cells by means of the FcR, its replication could be enhanced by CMV transactivating factors. Synergism between HIV and herpes viruses could also operate in vivo, enhancing immunosuppression and permitting the spread of HIV to cells not expressing CD4.