The V3 loops of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 surface glycoproteins contain proteolytic cleavage sites: a possible function in viral fusion?
Clements GJ., Price-Jones MJ., Stephens PE., Sutton C., Schulz TF., Clapham PR., McKeating JA., McClure MO., Thomson S., Marsh M.
Located close to the crown of the V3 type-specific neutralization loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (IIIB) SU glycoprotein gp120, are several potential sites that should be susceptible to proteolytic cleavage by enzymes of trypsinlike or chymotrypsinlike specificity, or by aspartic proteinases. The linkages potentially sensitive to chymotryptic/aspartic proteinase cleavage are retained also within the equivalent domain of HIV-2 (ROD) gp105. We show that thrombin and tryptase cleave HIV-1 gp120 specifically at the tryptic site (GPGR decreases AFVT), and that cathepsin E, an endosomal aspartic proteinase, cleaves at the chymotrypsinlike site (GPGRAF decreases VT). HIV-2 gp105 is also cut by cathepsin E at a site (QIML decreases MSGH) in its V3 loop. Cleavage of HIV-1 gp120 by thrombin is enhanced by sCD4 binding, but is prevented by transient exposure of gp120 to nonionic detergent. Thrombin treatment of HIV-1 gp120 destroys the binding sites for some neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on the V3 loop, but does not affect the affinity of gp120 for sCD4. Conversely, binding of neutralizing MAbs to the HIV-1 V3 loop prior to addition of thrombin or cathepsin E blocks the cleavage reactions, and the binding of some HIV-positive sera to gp120 blocks thrombin cleavage. Analysis of published sequences suggests that all HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunovirus (SIV) isolates contain potential proteolytic cleavage sites at similar positions in their V3 loops or equivalent domains. We suggest that cleavage of the V3 loop by a cell surface or endosomal proteinase occurs during the HIV-cell fusion reaction, and that neutralizing antibodies directed against the V3 loop might act by inhibition of this reaction.