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GSK-3beta is a regulatory serine/threonine kinase with a plethora of cellular targets. Consequently, selective small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3beta may have a variety of therapeutic uses including the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, type II diabetes and cancer. In order to characterize the active site of GSK-3beta, we determined crystal structures of unphosphorylated GSK-3beta in complex with selective and non-selective ATP-mimetic inhibitors. Analysis of the inhibitors' interactions with GSK-3beta in the structures reveals how the enzyme can accommodate a number of diverse molecular scaffolds. In addition, a conserved water molecule near Thr138 is identified that can serve a functional role in inhibitor binding. Finally, a comparison of the interactions made by selective and non-selective inhibitors highlights residues on the edge of the ATP binding-site that can be used to obtain inhibitor selectivity. Information gained from these structures provides a promising route for the design of second-generation GSK-3beta inhibitors.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Mol Biol

Publication Date

17/10/2003

Volume

333

Pages

393 - 407

Keywords

Adenosine Triphosphate, Antibiotics, Antineoplastic, Benzazepines, Binding Sites, Binding, Competitive, CDC2 Protein Kinase, Crystallography, X-Ray, Enzyme Inhibitors, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta, Growth Inhibitors, Humans, Indoles, Maleimides, Molecular Mimicry, Phosphorylation, Protein Conformation, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1, Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Staurosporine, Structure-Activity Relationship