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The oxygen-regulated control system responsible for the induction of erythropoietin (Epo) by hypoxia is present in most (if not all) cells and operates on other genes, including those involved in energy metabolism. To understand the organization of cis-acting sequences that are responsible for oxygen-regulated gene expression, we have studied the 5' flanking region of the mouse gene encoding the hypoxically inducible enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH). Deletional and mutational analysis of the function of mouse LDH-reporter fusion gene constructs in transient transfection assays defined three domains, between -41 and -84 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site, which were crucial for oxygen-regulated expression. The most important of these, although not capable of driving hypoxic induction in isolation, had the consensus of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) site, and cross-competed for the binding of HIF-1 with functionally active Epo and phosphoglycerate kinase-1 sequences. The second domain was positioned close to the HIF-1 site, in an analogous position to one of the critical regions in the Epo 3' hypoxic enhancer. The third domain had the motif of a cAMP response element (CRE). Activation of cAMP by forskolin had no effect on the level of LDH mRNA in normoxia, but produced a magnified response to hypoxia that was dependent upon the integrity of the CRE, indicating an interaction between inducible factors binding the HIF-1 and CRE sites.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Biol Chem

Publication Date

08/09/1995

Volume

270

Pages

21021 - 21027

Keywords

Animals, Base Sequence, Cell Hypoxia, Colforsin, DNA Mutational Analysis, DNA-Binding Proteins, Erythropoietin, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, HeLa Cells, Humans, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, L-Lactate Dehydrogenase, Mice, Molecular Sequence Data, Nuclear Proteins, Oxygen, Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Sequence Deletion, Transcription Factors