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D prostanoid receptor 2 (DP₂) [also known as chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper 2 (Th2) cells (CRTH2)] is selectively expressed by Th2 lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and mediates recruitment and activation of these cell types in response to prostaglandin D₂ (PGD₂). (5-Fluoro-2-methyl-3-quinolin-2-ylmethylindo-1-yl)-acetic acid (OC000459) is an indole-acetic acid derivative that potently displaces [³H]PGD₂ from human recombinant DP₂ (K(i) = 0.013 μM), rat recombinant DP₂ (K(i) = 0.003 μM), and human native DP₂ (Th2 cell membranes; K(i) = 0.004 μM) but does not interfere with the ligand binding properties or functional activities of other prostanoid receptors (prostaglandin E₁₋₄ receptors, D prostanoid receptor 1, thromboxane receptor, prostacyclin receptor, and prostaglandin F receptor). OC000459 inhibited chemotaxis (IC₅₀ = 0.028 μM) of human Th2 lymphocytes and cytokine production (IC₅₀ = 0.019 μM) by human Th2 lymphocytes. OC000459 competitively antagonized eosinophil shape change responses induced by PGD₂ in both isolated human leukocytes (pK(B) = 7.9) and human whole blood (pK(B) = 7.5) but did not inhibit responses to eotaxin, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, or complement component C5a. OC000459 also inhibited the activation of Th2 cells and eosinophils in response to supernatants from IgE/anti-IgE-activated human mast cells. OC000459 had no significant inhibitory activity on a battery of 69 receptors and 19 enzymes including cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2. OC000459 was found to be orally bioavailable in rats and effective in inhibiting blood eosinophilia induced by 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGD₂ (DK-PGD₂) in this species (ED₅₀ = 0.04 mg/kg p.o.) and airway eosinophilia in response to an aerosol of DK-PGD₂ in guinea pigs (ED₅₀ = 0.01 mg/kg p.o.). These data indicate that OC000459 is a potent, selective, and orally active DP₂ antagonist that retains activity in human whole blood and inhibits mast cell-dependent activation of both human Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils.

Original publication

DOI

10.1124/jpet.111.187203

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Pharmacol Exp Ther

Publication Date

02/2012

Volume

340

Pages

473 - 482

Keywords

Animals, Apoptosis, Arachidonic Acids, Binding, Competitive, CHO Cells, Calcium Signaling, Cell Membrane, Cell Shape, Chemokine CCL11, Chemotaxis, Complement C5a, Cricetinae, Culture Media, Conditioned, Eosinophilia, Eosinophils, Guinea Pigs, Humans, Indoleacetic Acids, Interleukin-13, Interleukin-5, Leukotriene B4, Lymphocyte Activation, Mast Cells, Prostaglandin Antagonists, Prostaglandin D2, Pulmonary Eosinophilia, Quinolines, Radioligand Assay, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptors, Immunologic, Receptors, Prostaglandin, Recombinant Proteins, Th2 Cells, Transfection