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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in the setting of immunodeficiency, including the immune reconstitution phase following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We assessed CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses in 87 HLA-A*0201-positive (A2+) and/or B*0702-positive (B7+) allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients using HLA-peptide tetramer staining and cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) to examine the association of CMV-specific immune reconstitution and CMV antigenemia following SCT. Strong CMV-specific T-cell responses recovered in most subjects (77 of 87, 88%) after SCT. Frequencies of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells were significantly higher in those subjects who experienced early antigenemia relative to those who did not (2.2% vs 0.33%, P =.0002), as were frequencies of CMV-specific CD4(+) T cells (1.71% vs 0.75%, P =.002). Frequencies of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells were also higher in subjects experiencing late antigenemia (2.4% vs 0.57%). When we combined tetramer staining and an assessment of cytokine production in a single assay, we found that individuals who experienced CMV antigenemia had lower tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-producing fractions of tetramer-staining CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells than subjects who did not (25% vs 65%, P =.015). Furthermore, individuals at high risk for CMV reactivation, including patients with acute graft-versus-host disease and those receiving steroids, had low fractions of cytokine-producing CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells (25% and 27%, respectively). These data suggest that the inability to control CMV reactivation following allogeneic SCT is due to the impaired function of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells rather than an inability to recover sufficient numbers of CMV-specific T cells.

Original publication

DOI

10.1182/blood-2002-05-1387

Type

Journal article

Journal

Blood

Publication Date

15/11/2002

Volume

100

Pages

3690 - 3697

Keywords

Adult, Aged, Antigens, Viral, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cross-Sectional Studies, Cytomegalovirus, Female, Hematologic Neoplasms, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Transplantation, Homologous, Virus Activation