Sensitive Deep-Sequencing-Based HIV-1 Genotyping Assay To Simultaneously Determine Susceptibility to Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, Integrase, and Maturation Inhibitors, as Well as HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism
Gibson RM., Meyer AM., Winner D., Archer J., Feyertag F., Ruiz-Mateos E., Leal M., Robertson DL., Schmotzer CL., Quiñones-Mateu ME.
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>With 29 individual antiretroviral drugs available from six classes that are approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a combination of different phenotypic and genotypic tests is currently needed to monitor HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we developed a novel HIV-1 genotypic assay based on deep sequencing (DeepGen HIV) to simultaneously assess HIV-1 susceptibilities to all drugs targeting the three viral enzymes and to predict HIV-1 coreceptor tropism. Patient-derived<jats:italic>gag</jats:italic>-p2/NCp7/p1/p6/<jats:italic>pol</jats:italic>-PR/RT/IN- and<jats:italic>env</jats:italic>-C2V3 PCR products were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Reads spanning the 3′ end of the Gag, protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and V3 regions were extracted, truncated, translated, and assembled for genotype and HIV-1 coreceptor tropism determination. DeepGen HIV consistently detected both minority drug-resistant viruses and non-R5 HIV-1 variants from clinical specimens with viral loads of ≥1,000 copies/ml and from B and non-B subtypes. Additional mutations associated with resistance to PR, RT, and IN inhibitors, previously undetected by standard (Sanger) population sequencing, were reliably identified at frequencies as low as 1%. DeepGen HIV results correlated with phenotypic (original Trofile, 92%; enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay [ESTA], 80%; TROCAI, 81%; and VeriTrop, 80%) and genotypic (population sequencing/Geno2Pheno with a 10% false-positive rate [FPR], 84%) HIV-1 tropism test results. DeepGen HIV (83%) and Trofile (85%) showed similar concordances with the clinical response following an 8-day course of maraviroc monotherapy (MCT). In summary, this novel all-inclusive HIV-1 genotypic and coreceptor tropism assay, based on deep sequencing of the PR, RT, IN, and V3 regions, permits simultaneous multiplex detection of low-level drug-resistant and/or non-R5 viruses in up to 96 clinical samples. This comprehensive test, the first of its class, will be instrumental in the development of new antiretroviral drugs and, more importantly, will aid in the treatment and management of HIV-infected individuals.</jats:p>