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BackgroundRegular monitoring is required to ensure that patients who have, or are at risk of, chronic kidney disease (CKD) receive appropriate management. Guidelines recommend regular testing of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria. However, evidence suggests that albuminuria testing rates, specifically urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), are suboptimal.AimTo assess published evidence relating to the drivers of non-adherence to albuminuria testing guidelines and the impact of not identifying CKD across the course of progression.Materials and methodsA systematic review of five bibliographic databases was conducted, supplemented by hand searches of relevant conference abstracts.ResultsOne study was identified that reported drivers of non-adherence to albuminuria testing guidelines. The largest barrier was the perception that testing does not impact patient management. Thirteen studies were identified that evaluated the impact of not identifying CKD patients. All included studies analyzed the effect of not identifying worsening CKD severity leading to late referral (LR). 12/13 studies reported only on clinical impact, and 1/13 reported on clinical and economic impact. LR led to higher costs and worse outcomes than early referral, including higher rates of mortality and worsened kidney replacement therapy preparation.ConclusionThis systematic review demonstrates a gap in evidence exploring the drivers of non-adherence to albuminuria testing guidelines and the impact of not identifying patients in the early stages of CKD. Guideline-recommended testing allows timely identification, referral, and treatment for patients with, or at risk of, CKD, providing the best chance of avoiding the worsened outcomes identified in this review.

Original publication




Journal article


Clinical nephrology

Publication Date





145 - 156


Humans, Albuminuria, Dietary Supplements, Referral and Consultation, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic