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A functional vasculature is essential for tumor progression and malignant cell metastasis. Endothelial cells lining blood vessels in the tumor are exposed to a unique microenvironment, which in turn induces expression of specific proteins designated as tumor endothelial markers (TEMs). TEMs either localized at the plasma membrane or secreted into the extracellular matrix are accessible for antibody targeting, which can be either infused or generated de novo via vaccination. Recent studies have demonstrated vaccines against several TEMs can induce a strong antibody response accompanied by a potent antitumor effect in animal models. These findings present an exciting field for novel anticancer therapy development. As most of the TEMs are self-antigens, breaking tolerance is necessary for a successful vaccine. This chapter describes approaches to efficiently induce a robust antibody response against the tumor vasculature.

Original publication




Journal article


Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Publication Date





839 - 849


Institute for Biomedical Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.


Cell Line, Tumor, Animals, Humans, Mice, Neoplasms, Disease Progression, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Aluminum, Cancer Vaccines, Antibodies, Antigens, Neoplasm, Vaccination, Female