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Factor inhibiting HIF can catalyse two asparaginyl-hydroxylations in VNVN motifs of ankyrin fold proteins.
The aspariginyl-hydroxylase human Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH) is an important regulator of the transcriptional activity of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). FIH also catalyses the hydroxylation of asparaginyl and other residues in ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) containing proteins, including apoptosis stimulating of p53 protein (ASPP) family members. ASPP2 is reported to undergo a single FIH catalysed hydroxylation at Asn-986. We report biochemical and crystallographic evidence showing FIH catalyses the unprecedented post-translational hydroxylation of both asparaginyl-residues in "VNVN" and related motifs of ankyrin repeat domains in ASPP proteins (i.e. ASPP1, ASPP2 and iASPP) and the related ASB11 and p18-INK4C proteins. Our biochemical results extend the substrate scope of FIH catalysis and may have implications for its biological roles, including in the hypoxic response and ASPP family function.
Background Meningiomas are generally slowly growing intracranial tumors. They are often incidentally diagnosed, given that symptoms may be absent even in cases of an enormous tumor size. Headache is a frequent but not consistent symptom. Therefore, we examined the association between structural, biochemical and histochemical tumor parameters with preoperative as well as postoperative occurrence of headache. Methods In our study, we prospectively investigated 69 consecutive patients enrolled for meningioma neurosurgery. Anatomical, histological and biochemical parameters were acquired, and headache parameters were registered from the clinical report and from a questionnaire filled by the patients before neurosurgery. The headache was re-evaluated one year after neurosurgery. The study was designed to exploratively investigate whether there is an association of acquired clinical and biological parameters with the occurrence of preoperative and postoperative headache. Results Edema diameter and the proliferation marker MIB-1 were negatively associated with the incidence and intensity of preoperative headache, while the content of prostaglandin E2 in the tumor tissue was positively associated with preoperative headache intensity. Headache was more prevalent when the meningioma was located in the area supplied by the ophthalmic trigeminal branch. Compared to preoperative headache levels, an overall reduction was observed one year postoperative, and patients with a larger tumor had a higher headache remission. In parietal and occipital meningiomas and in those with a larger edema, the percentage of the headache remission rate was higher compared to other locations or smaller edema. Multivariable analyses showed an involvement of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in preoperative headache. Conclusions The study demonstrates new associations between meningiomas and headache. The postoperative headache outcome in the presented patient sample is encouraging for the performed neurosurgical intervention. These results should be tested in a prospective study that incorporates all patients with meningiomas.
The mechanisms responsible for painful and insensate diabetic neuropathy are not completely understood. Here, we have investigated sensory neuropathy in the Ins2+/Akita mouse, a hereditary model of diabetes. Akita mice become diabetic soon after weaning, and we show that this is accompanied by an impaired mechanical and thermal nociception and a significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. Electrophysiological investigations of skin-nerve preparations identified a reduced rate of action potential discharge in Ins2+/Akita mechanonociceptors compared with wild-type littermates, whereas the function of low-threshold A-fibers was essentially intact. Studies of isolated sensory neurons demonstrated a markedly reduced heat responsiveness in Ins2+/Akita dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but a mostly unchanged function of cold-sensitive neurons. Restoration of normal glucose control by islet transplantation produced a rapid recovery of nociception, which occurred before normoglycemia had been achieved. Islet transplantation also restored Ins2+/Akita intraepidermal nerve fiber density to the same level as wild-type mice, indicating that restored insulin production can reverse both sensory and anatomical abnormalities of diabetic neuropathy in mice. The reduced rate of action potential discharge in nociceptive fibers and the impaired heat responsiveness of Ins2+/Akita DRG neurons suggest that ionic sensory transduction and transmission mechanisms are modified by diabetes.
Renal denervation (DNX) is a treatment for resistant arterial hypertension. Efferent sympathetic nerves regrow, but reinnervation by renal afferent nerves has only recently been shown in the renal pelvis of rats after unilateral DNX. We examined intrarenal perivascular afferent and sympathetic efferent nerves after unilateral surgical DNX. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), CGRP, and smooth muscle actin were identified in kidney sections from 12 Sprague-Dawley rats, to distinguish afferents, efferents, and vasculature. DNX kidneys and nondenervated kidneys were examined 1, 4, and 12 wk after DNX. Tissue levels of CGRP and norepinephrine (NE) were measured with ELISA and mass spectrometry, respectively. DNX decreased TH and CGRP labeling by 90% and 95%, respectively ( P < 0.05) within 1 wk. After 12 wk TH and CGRP labeling returned to baseline with a shift toward afferent innervation ( P < 0.05). Nondenervated kidneys showed a doubling of both labels within 12 wk ( P < 0.05). CGRP content decreased by 72% [3.2 ± 0.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 ng/gkidney; P < 0.05] and NA by 78% [1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 pmol/mgkidney; P < 0.05] 1 wk after DNX. After 12 wk, CGRP, but not NE, content in DNX kidneys was fully recovered, with no changes in the nondenervated kidneys. The use of phenol in the DNX procedure did not influence this result. We found morphological reinnervation and transmitter recovery of afferents within 12 wk after DNX. Despite morphological evidence of sympathetic regrowth, NE content did not fully recover. These results suggest a long-term net surplus of afferent influence on the DNX kidney may be contributing to the blood pressure lowering effect of DNX.
The mitochondrial deubiquitylase USP30 negatively regulates the selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. We present the characterisation of an N-cyano pyrrolidine compound, FT3967385, with high selectivity for USP30. We demonstrate that ubiquitylation of TOM20, a component of the outer mitochondrial membrane import machinery, represents a robust biomarker for both USP30 loss and inhibition. A proteomics analysis, on a SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell line model, directly compares the effects of genetic loss of USP30 with chemical inhibition. We have thereby identified a subset of ubiquitylation events consequent to mitochondrial depolarisation that are USP30 sensitive. Within responsive elements of the ubiquitylome, several components of the outer mitochondrial membrane transport (TOM) complex are prominent. Thus, our data support a model whereby USP30 can regulate the availability of ubiquitin at the specific site of mitochondrial PINK1 accumulation following membrane depolarisation. USP30 deubiquitylation of TOM complex components dampens the trigger for the Parkin-dependent amplification of mitochondrial ubiquitylation leading to mitophagy. Accordingly, PINK1 generation of phospho-Ser65 ubiquitin proceeds more rapidly in cells either lacking USP30 or subject to USP30 inhibition.
Inflammatory Gene Expression Associates with Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA- but Not Integrant-Derived Transcripts in HBeAg Negative Disease
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem that presents as a spectrum of liver disease, reflecting an interplay between the virus and the host immune system. HBV genomes exist as episomal covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) or chromosomal integrants. The relative contribution of these genomes to the viral transcriptome in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is not well-understood. We developed a qPCR method to estimate the abundance of HBV cccDNA- and integrant-derived viral transcripts and applied this to a cohort of patients diagnosed with CHB in the HBe antigen negative phase of disease. We noted a variable pattern of HBV transcripts from both DNA templates, with preS1/S2 mRNAs predominating and a significant association between increasing age and the expression of integrant-derived mRNAs, but not with inflammatory status. In contrast, cccDNA-derived transcripts were associated with markers of liver inflammation. Analysis of the inflammatory hepatic transcriptome identified 24 genes significantly associated with cccDNA transcriptional activity. Our study uncovers an immune gene signature that associates with HBV cccDNA transcription and increases our understanding of viral persistence.
BackgroundEstablished MRI and emerging X-ray contrast agents for non-invasive imaging of articular cartilage rely on non-selective electrostatic interactions with negatively charged proteoglycans. These contrast agents have limited prognostic utility in diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) due to the characteristic high turnover of proteoglycans. To overcome this limitation, we developed a radiocontrast agent that targets the type II collagen macromolecule in cartilage and used it to monitor disease progression in a murine model of OA.MethodsTo confer radiopacity to cartilage contrast agents, the naturally occurring tyrosine derivative 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) was introduced into a selective peptide for type II collagen. Synthetic DIT peptide derivatives were synthesised by Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis and binding to ex vivo mouse tibial cartilage evaluated by high-resolution micro-CT. Di-Iodotyrosinated Peptide Imaging of Cartilage (DIPIC) was performed ex vivo and in vivo 4, 8 and 12 weeks in mice after induction of OA by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). Finally, human osteochondral plugs were imaged ex vivo using DIPIC.ResultsFifteen DIT peptides were synthesised and tested, yielding seven leads with varying cartilage binding strengths. DIPIC visualised ex vivo murine articular cartilage comparably to the ex vivo contrast agent phosphotungstic acid. Intra-articular injection of contrast agent followed by in vivo DIPIC enabled delineation of damaged murine articular cartilage. Finally, the translational potential of the contrast agent was confirmed by visualisation of ex vivo human cartilage explants.ConclusionDIPIC has reduction and refinement implications in OA animal research and potential clinical translation to imaging human disease.
AbstractThermal profiling (TP) has emerged as a promising experimental methodology for elucidating the molecular targets of drugs and metabolites on a proteome-wide scale. Here, we present the Thermal Profiling Meltome Analysis Program (TP-MAP) software package for the analysis and ranking of 1D and 2D thermal profiling datasets. TP-MAP provides a user-friendly interface to quickly identify hit candidates and further explore targets of interest via intersection and crosslinking to public databases.
Covalent fragment-based ligand screening approaches for identification of novel ubiquitin proteasome system modulators
Abstract Ubiquitination is a key regulatory mechanism vital for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Protein degradation is induced by E3 ligases via attachment of ubiquitin chains to substrates. Pharmacological exploitation of this phenomenon via targeted protein degradation (TPD) can be achieved with molecular glues or bifunctional molecules facilitating the formation of ternary complexes between an E3 ligase and a given protein of interest (POI), resulting in ubiquitination of the substrate and subsequent proteolysis by the proteasome. Recently, the development of novel covalent fragment screening approaches has enabled the identification of first-in-class ligands for E3 ligases and deubiquitinases revealing so far unexplored binding sites which highlights the potential of these methods to uncover and expand druggable space for new target classes.
SignificanceRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating chronic inflammatory disease in which symptoms exhibit a strong time-of-day rhythmicity. RA is commonly associated with metabolic disturbance and increased incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, yet the mechanisms underlying this metabolic dysregulation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that rhythmic inflammation drives reorganization of metabolic programs in distal liver and muscle tissues. Chronic inflammation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism, including accumulation of inflammation-associated ceramide species in a time-of-day-dependent manner. These findings reveal multiple points for therapeutic intervention centered on the circadian clock, metabolic dysregulation, and inflammatory signaling.
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are α/β heterodimeric transcription factors modulating cellular responses to the low oxygen condition. Among three HIF-α isoforms, HIF-3α is the least studied to date. Here we show that oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a physiological lipid known to regulate food intake and metabolism, binds selectively to HIF-3α. Through crystallographic analysis of HIF-3 α/β heterodimer in both apo and OEA-bound forms, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and biochemical and cell-based assays, we unveil the molecular mechanism of OEA entry and binding to the PAS-B pocket of HIF-3α, and show that it leads to enhanced heterodimer stability and functional modulation of HIF-3. The identification of HIF-3α as a selective lipid sensor is consistent with recent human genetic findings linking HIF-3α with obesity, and demonstrates that endogenous metabolites can directly interact with HIF-α proteins to modulate their activities, potentially as a regulatory mechanism supplementary to the well-known oxygen-dependent HIF-α hydroxylation.